Global Environment




The tropical rain forest is a forest of tall trees in a region of year-round warmth. An average of 50 to 260 inches (125 to 660 cm.) of rain falls yearly.

Rainforest Location Map

Rain forests belong to the tropical wet climate group. The temperature in a rain forest rarely gets higher than 93 °F (34 °C) or drops below 68 °F (20 °C); average humidity is between 77 and 88%; rainfall is often more than 100 inches a year. There is usually a brief season of less rain. In monsoonal areas, there is a real dry season. Almost all rain forests lie near the equator.


*Layers of the Rainforest

*Plant Life

*Animal Life

*Location of Rainforests

*Southeast Asia Rainforests

Rainforests now cover less than 6% of Earth's land surface. Scientists estimate that more than half of all the world's plant and animal species live in tropical rain forests. Tropical rainforests produce 40% of Earth's oxygen.

A tropical rain forest has more kinds of trees than any other area in the world. Scientists have counted about 100 to 300 species in one 2 1/2-acre (1-hectare) area in South America. Seventy percent of the plants in the rainforest are trees.

About 1/4 of all the medicines we use come from rainforest plants. Curare comes from a tropical vine, and is used as an anesthetic and to relax muscles during surgery. Quinine, from the cinchona tree, is used to treat malaria. A person with lymphocytic leukemia has a 99% chance that the disease will go into remission because of the rosy periwinkle. More than 1,400 varieties of tropical plants are thought to be potential cures for cancer.

All tropical rain forests resemble one another in some ways. Many of the trees have straight trunks that don't branch out for 100 feet or more. There is no sense in growing branches below the canopy where there is little light. The majority of the trees have smooth, thin bark because there is no need to protect the them from water loss and freezing temperatures. It also makes it difficult for epiphytes and plant parasites to get a hold on the trunks. The bark of different species is so similar that it is difficult to identify a tree by its bark. Many trees can only be identified by their flowers.

Despite these differences, each of the three largest rainforests--the American, the African, and the Asian--has a different group of animal and plant species. Each rain forest has many species of monkeys, all of which differ from the species of the other two rain forests. In addition, different areas of the same rain forest may have different species. Many kinds of trees that grow in the mountains of the Amazon rain forest do not grow in the lowlands of that same forest.

Layers of the Rainforest

There are four very distinct layers of trees in a tropical rain forest. These layers have been identified as the emergent, upper canopy, understory, and forest floor.

Emergent trees are spaced wide apart, and are 100 to 240 feet tall with umbrella-shaped canopies that grow above the forest. Because emergent trees are exposed to drying winds, they tend to have small, pointed leaves. Some species lose their leaves during the brief dry season in monsoon rainforests. These giant trees have straight, smooth trunks with few branches. Their root system is very shallow, and to support their size they grow buttresses that can spread out to a distance of 30 feet.
The upper canopy of 60 to 130 foot trees allows light to be easily available at the top of this layer, but greatly reduced any light below it. Most of the rainforest's animals live in the upper canopy. There is so much food available at this level that some animals never go down to the forest floor. The leaves have "drip spouts" that allows rain to run off. This keeps them dry and prevents mold and mildew from forming in the humid environment.
The understory, or lower canopy, consists of 60 foot trees. This layer is made up of the trunks of canopy trees, shrubs, plants and small trees. There is little air movement. As a result the humidity is constantly high. This level is in constant shade.
The forest floor is usually completely shaded, except where a canopy tree has fallen and created an opening. Most areas of the forest floor receive so little light that few bushes or herbs can grow there. As a result, a person can easily walk through most parts of a tropical rain forest. Less than 1 % of the light that strikes the top of the forest penetrates to the forest floor. The top soil is very thin and of poor quality. A lot of litter falls to the ground where it is quickly broken down by decomposers like termites, earthworms and fungi. The heat and humidity further help to break down the litter. This organic matter is then just as quickly absorbed by the trees' shallow roots.

Plant Life

Besides these four layers, a shrub/sapling layer receives about 3 % of the light that filters in through the canopies. These stunted trees are capable of a sudden growth surge when a gap in the canopy opens above them.

The air beneath the lower canopy is almost always humid. The trees themselves give off water through the pores (stomata) of their leaves. This process, called transpiration, can account for as much as half of the precipitation in the rain forest.

Rainforest plants have made many adaptations to their environment. With over 80 inches of rain per year, plants have made adaptations that helps them shed water off their leaves quickly so the branches don't get weighed down and break. Many plants have drip tips and grooved leaves, and some leaves have oily coatings to shed water. To absorb as much sunlight as possible on the dark understory, leaves are very large. Some trees have leaf stalks that turn with the movement of the sun so they always absorb the maximum amount of light. Leaves in the upper canopy are dark green, small and leathery to reduce water loss in the strong sunlight. Some trees will grow large leaves at the lower canopy level and small leaves in the upper canopy. Other plants grow in the upper canopy on larger trees to get sunlight. These are the epiphytes such as orchids and bromeliads. Many trees have buttress and stilt roots for extra support in the shallow, wet soil of the rainforests.

Over 2,500 species of vines grow in the rainforest. Lianas start off as small shrubs that grow on the forest floor. To reach the sunlight in the upper canopy it sends out tendrils to grab sapling trees. The liana and the tree grow towards the canopy together. The vines grow from one tree to another and make up 40% of the canopy leaves. The rattan vine has spikes on the underside of its leaves that point backwards to grab onto sapling trees. Other "strangler" vines will use trees as support and grow thicker and thicker as they reach the canopy, strangling its host tree. They look like trees whose centers have been hollowed out.

Dominant species do not exist in tropical rainforests. Lowland dipterocarp forest can consist of many different species of Dipterocarpaceae, but not all of the same species. Trees of the same species are very seldom found growing close together. This bio diversity and separation of the species prevents mass contamination and die-off from disease or insect infestation. Bio diversity also insures that there will be enough pollinators to take care of each species' needs. Animals depend on the staggered blooming and fruiting of rainforest plants to supply them with a year-round source of food.

Animal Life

Many species of animal life can be found in the rain forest. Common characteristics found among mammals and birds (and reptiles and amphibians, too) include adaptations to a life in the trees, such as the prehensile tails of New World monkeys. Other characteristics are bright colors and sharp patterns, loud vocalizations, and diets heavy on fruits.

Insects make up the largest single group of animals that live in tropical forests. They include brightly colored butterflies, mosquitoes, camouflaged stick insects, and huge colonies of ants.

The Amazon river basin rainforest contains a wider variety of plant and animal life than any other biome in the world. The second largest population of plant and animal life can be found in scattered locations and islands of Southeast Asia. The lowest variety can be found in Africa. There may be 40 to 100 different species in 2.5 acres ( 1 hectare) of a tropical rain forest.

When early explorers first discovered the rainforests of Africa, Southeast Asia and South America, they They were amazed by the dense growth, trees with giant buttresses, vines and epiphytes . The tropical vegetation grew so dense that it was difficult to cut one's way through it. It was thought at the time that the soil of a rainforest must be very fertile, filled with nutrients, enabling it to support the immense trees and other vegetation they found.

Today we know that the soil of the tropical rainforests is shallow, very poor in nutrients and almost without soluble minerals. Thousands of years of heavy rains have washed away the nutrients in the soil obtained from weathered rocks. The rainforest has a very short nutrient cycle. Nutrients generally stay in an ecosystem by being recycled and in a rainforest are mainly found in the living plants and the layers of decomposing leaf litter. Various species of decomposers like insects, bacteria, and fungi make quick work of turning dead plant and animal matter into nutrients. Plants take up these nutrients the moment they are released.

A study in the Amazon rainforest found that 99% of nutrients are held in root mats. When a rainforest is burned or cut down the nutrients are removed from the ecosystem. The soil can only be used for a very short time before it becomes completely depleted of all nutrients.

Where the Rainforests Are Found

The tropical rain forest can be found in three major geographical areas around the world.

*Central America in the the Amazon river basin.
*Africa - Zaire basin, with a small area in West Africa; also eastern Madagascar.
*Indo-Malaysia - west coast of India, Assam, Southeast Asia, New Guinea and Queensland, Australia.

South East Asian Rainforests

The Southeast Asian rainforests are the oldest, consistent rainforests on Earth, South East Asian Rainforest Location Mapdating back to the Pleistocene Epoch 70 million years ago. It has a biological richness and diversity unequaled by that of the Amazon or African rainforests. Yet Southeast Asia is losing its rainforests faster than any equatorial region, and has the fewest remaining primary rainforests. It is projected that most of the primary rainforests of Southeast Asia will be destroyed in the next 10 years.

Southeast Asia is a 3,100 mile long chain of about 20,000 islands strung between Asia and Australia. It covers and area of 1,112,000 square miles, almost twice the size of Alaska. The area lies from latitude 20° north and 16° south, and longitude 95° to 105° east. The average daily temperature varies from 70°F to 90°F. Humidity is always high.

Millions of years ago, as the rest of the world went through cooling and warming periods, the climate of the Southeast Asian region remained more or less the same. This was due mainly because of its location on the equator and being surrounded by water. Because the climate on the equator doesn't change much and the surrounding oceans provide plenty of moisture in the form of rain, the region was able to have consistent forests over very long periods of time. As sea levels rose and fell through warming and icing cycles, small pockets of forests survived as "forest refugia", or reservoirs of wildlife from which various species could reestablish themselves. Malaysia and the islands of Borneo, Sumatra and Java were all part of the same landmass during the last ice age. When the glaciers melted and sea levels rose many of these reservoirs were cut off from each other. This forced species to developed their own distinctive evolutionary paths in response to local environments, leading to an amazing diversity of species of every kind.

One interesting feature of the lowland rainforests of Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra is the dominance of one family of trees, the Dipterocarpaceae. Dipterocarp are emergent trees and can reach heights of 120 feet. Their crowns are supported on large straight trunks. Many epiphytes, like orchids and ferns grow on the trees. Lianas, vines and strangler figs cling to the trees as they grow towards the sunlight. The emergent species is the tualang (Koompassia excelsa)which can reach heights of 280 feet. It is the 3rd tallest tree species in the world, and is almost never cut down because of its hard wood and massive buttresses. But most importantly it is home to large honey bees (Apis dorsata)whose honeycombs hang like enormous wedges from the underside of its branches. These trees are worth more money when left standing.

Trees and shrubs in the lower canopy have elongated crowns as the leaves reach for light. Shade tolerant species flourish here. Leaves are set at the best angle to receive light. Special swollen joints at the base of the stem, called pulvinus, rotate the leaf to follow the sun.

On the forest floor the soil is shallow with most nutrients close to the surface. Leaf litter and dead trees are quickly consumed and broken down by fungi, insects, and other decomposers. The nutrients decomposition creates are immediately taken up by the biomass of the forest. Because the nutrients are close to the surface, roots don't grow down very far, and trees have adapted by growing buttressed roots up to 30 ft high, or stilt roots which hang down from their trunks and branches.

There are many mutualistic relationships within the ecosystem of the rainforest. Dawn Bats are the prime pollinators of the durian tree. Each of the hundreds of fig species have their own species of pollinating wasp (Agaoninae spp), without which they would quickly fade into extinction and vise versa. Silvery Gibbons (Hylobates moloch)live their entire lives in the high canopies of the dipterocarp forests, never descending to the ground. Their survival depends on the dipterocarp and fig trees which house and feed them throughout the year. Links within the tropical rainforest ecosystem extend to thousands of plants which support mammals and birds. If a keystone species is eliminated, additional losses will be triggered and create a dominoes effect of extinctions.

Trees don't flower and come into fruit at the same time in the Southeast Asian rainforest. Some trees only fruit once every three years, some only every ten year. The short nutrient cycle makes it difficult for trees to produce large amounts of fruit at regular intervals. Many trees complete the flowering cycle in only one day, and are only receptive for a few hours during the day or night. Very few trees depend on the wind for pollination since there is little air under the dense canopy. These trees depend on animals and insects to pollinate and disperse their seeds. Emergent trees like the Kapok (Ceiba pentandra), dipterocarps, or Tualang which can grow to heights of 240 ft, can afford to have air-borne seeds. Their crowns grow high above the canopy and are exposed to the winds that blow there.

When seeds drop to the ground they almost always need to germinate in shady conditions. The forest floor is a difficult place to begin life, and many seeds surround themselves with fleshy, aromatic pulp as an immediate source of food. Smell plays an important part of a plant's life cycle, and many plants will have strong smelling flowers and fruits. The Rafflesia smells like a rotting corps, and the durian fruit smells almost too bad to eat, although it is known as the King of Fruit and tastes delicious. The powerful smell attract animals and insects that eat and disperse the seeds far from their parent tree.

Hundreds of animal and plant species are on the brink of extinction in Southeast Asia. The critically endangered two-horned Sumatran rhinoceros survives in small forest pockets of Sumatra and Borneo. Their entire population is thought to be only 300 to 500 individuals. The Javan rhinoceros has already slipped into extinction. The Sumatran tiger, like its cousin the Javan tiger will soon be extinct as well. The Asian elephant is another large forest herbivore which needs large amounts of forest to survive. Human encroachment and logging are shrinking their habitat to the extent that they can no longer support the elephants. The Malayan tapir is the largest of the 4 species of tapir still alive and no more than 50 animals still live in the wild. Another animal found only on Sumatra and Borneo is the orangutan, or "man of the forest". They were once found on mainland Asia from Thailand to southern China. They feed mostly on fruit and move through the forest following the fruiting trees. There are thirteen separate species of primates in Borneo's lowland forests alone. Most have overlapping home ranges but have different diets and foraging methods.

The climate of Southeast Asia is classified as a tropical wet climate in the Köppen climate zone system. The climate is influenced by maritime wind systems which originate in the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. It has two monsoon seasons. The northeastern monsoon occurs from October to February and brings heavy rains to the eastern side of the islands. These storms carry the same punch as Atlantic hurricanes but spend much of their energy over the Philippines. The southwestern monsoon is more powerful and occurs from April to August. Heavy rains saturate the western side of the island chain. Rain shadow effects create dryer but windy conditions on the opposite sides of the islands and the Malaysian peninsula during monsoon seasons. There are two inter-monsoon seasons between the two main monsoon seasons. Southeast Asian rainforests get an average of 79 inches of rain annually.

Any change in the monsoon cycle can have devastating results. In 1992-1993 one of the largest fires ever burned in Kalimantan. Widespread logging had degraded the primary forest and made it prone to fire. The drought brought on by the El Niño of that year created a catastrophe when agricultural fires got out of control. Twentyseven thousand square km burned out of control.

The same events unfolded in 1998. The El Niño of that year created a very weak monsoon season. Thousands of forest fires burned over Malaysia and the Indonesian archipelago, destroying rainforests and the plants and animals within them. A haze of smoke spread for thousands of miles across the region. Untold mutualistic relationships may have been destroyed, keystone species eliminated. It is still unclear what effects the events of 1998 had on the ecosystem of the rainforests. Unfortunately, in the year 2002 another strong El Niño is developing over the Pacific.

Political instability in the Indonesian archipelago has resulted in little law enforcement within protected wildlife areas. In 1992, feeling betrayed by the government of President Suharto, local people took control of the land and began indiscriminate logging and farming in the dipterocarp rainforests. Little regard has been given for the long-term environmental effects, and at the present rate of destruction there will be no primary lowland rainforests remaining in Indonesian Borneo by the next decade.

In Indonesia illegal logging has led to a "biological catastrophe" affecting thousands of plant and animal species and upsetting the natural biologic equilibrium that keeps a rainforest healthy and stable. The mutualism that sustains numerous species has been destabilized and could lead to massive extinctions. For the plants and animals and the myriad species that inhabit the rainforests of Southeast Asia it may be too late and there is no "forest refugia" left from which to replenish their species. Fragmentation of habitats will cause more interaction of animals with humans, and many animals will be killed or captured for the pet trade. Huge numbers of species will become extinct before their role in the rainforest will have become known, and the rainforest ecosystem of Southeast Asia will collapse.

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